RThe ATP synthase inhibition induces an AMPK-dependent glycolytic switch of mesenchymal stem cells that enhances their immunotherapeutic potential.

Theranostics. 2021 Jan 1;11(1):445-460. doi: 10.7150/thno.51631. eCollection 2021.

Objectives: Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSC) are promising therapeutic tools for inflammatory diseases due to their potent immunoregulatory capacities. Their suppressive activity mainly depends on inflammatory cues that have been recently associated with changes in MSC bioenergetic status towards a glycolytic metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this metabolic reprogramming and its impact on MSC therapeutic properties have not been investigated. Methods: Human and murine-derived MSC were metabolically reprogramed using pro-inflammatory cytokines, an inhibitor of ATP synthase (oligomycin), or 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG). The immunosuppressive activity of these cells was tested in vitro using co-culture experiments with pro-inflammatory T cells and in vivo with the Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) and the Graph versus Host Disease (GVHD) murine models.